• Kaine

Sewing 107 - Fabric Properties and Preparation

Updated: Feb 6


Welcome back to this fresh chapter! Thanks for being patient, I know you want to jump right into sewing your own clothes, but the right foundation make for a stronger skill. Today, we’ll delve into how to prepare your fabric for sewing, there are so many terms used in sewing and naming them all will simply lead to a boring read. Rather I’ll explain things as we come across them and we can both build up our own sewing glossary. But there are a few terms I’ll clarify here.


METRIC AND IMPERIAL SYSTEM

Metric system is Metres and Centimetres. Imperial system is Feet and inches. In Nigeria, we use the Imperial system for sewing and the metric system for everything else. Now, the important thing to note is that 1 inch = 2.54cm, so you can do the conversion regardless of the source you are working with. Some sewing books I read are in metric system for instance.


measuring tape

An inch is divided into eights, 1/8, 2/8/, 3/8, 4/8, 5/8, 6/8, 7/8, 8/8. On the other hand, A centimetre is divided into tens, ten millimetres. So it’s 1/10, 2/10, 3/10, 4/10, 5/10, 6/10, 7/10, 8/10, 9/10, 10/10. These are indicated on the lines of your measuring tape.


YARDAGE AND METRE

Fabric is basically sold by the Yard (Imperial) or by the Metre (metric). A yard is 36 inches long and a Metre is 100cm long. The width of the fabric can be 45 to 60 inches or 115cm to 150cm wide.

yards and metres conversion
yards and metres table

PARTS OF THE WOVEN FABRIC

As I mentioned in the previous chapter, Fibres are either woven or knitted together to create fabrics. For now, let’s tackle the Woven fabric which in its most basic form is the warp threads are stretched out on the loom and the weft threads are woven in and out of them.


A roll or cut of fabric has different parts and this helps you determine how to cut out your pattern pieces for sewing. Whether you buy your fabric straight off the bale in the market or in a packet like your standard 6 yards ankara or wax print, it is the same principle.


Width – It is usually 45 to 60 inches (115cm or 150cm) depending on the brand or 100inches for bedsheets. This is the edge that is cut by hand in the market by the seller. The crosswise grain is parallel to the width.


Length – It is the total length of the bale of fabric. This is the Selvedge edge which is already finished from the factory during production. The line running parallel to the selvedge edge is the lengthwise grain. It is along this length that the yardage (or metre) is measured. The selvedge usually has the label of the manufacturer printed on it

The Warp threads run from width to width (up and down). They are parallel to the selvedge.

The Weft threads run from selvedge to selvedge (left to right). They are parallel to the width.


stretchy on the bias

Bias – when you cut fabric on the diagonal at a 45 degree angle, this is the True bias cut. Any cut that is not strictly on the lengthwise or crosswise grain such as a curve, is on the bias. Fabric cut on the bias does not fray (much) and fabric is stretchy on the bias.  You cannot buy fabric in the market cut on the bias.


PARTS OF THE KNITTED FABRIC

A knitted fabric is formed by knitting a yarn or thread into fabric which creates a system of interlocked loops. Various patterns of these loops can result in different knitted patterns. Many knitted fabric form a continuous shape like a cylinder or tube, thus having 2 cut edges and no selvedges.


close up of knit fabric
Close up of knit fabric

parts of knit fabric tubular

parts of knit fabric tubular

There are other knitted fabric that are flat just like woven fabrics. According to Wikipedia, "in knitted fabrics, selvages are the unfinished yet structurally sound edges that were neither cast on nor bound off. Historically, the term selvage applied only to loom woven fabric, though no